Kuhli Loach Care: Habitat, Size, Tank Mates, Lifespan & Breeding

The kuhli loach, sometimes called the coolie loach or leopard loach, is a peaceful, freshwater, bottom-dwelling fish.

Its shy and peaceful temperament makes the kuhli loach fish the perfect tank companion. However, we recommend only more experienced aquarists keep them.

To learn more about the kuhli loach’s natural habitat, where to find it, and how to successfully keep this colorful fish, keep reading.

Kuhli Loach Facts & Overview

Kuhli Loach

Care Level:Intermediate
Color Form: Yellow and brown bands
Lifespan: 10 years
Size: 4 inches
Diet: Omnivore (prefers live food)
Family: Cobitidae
Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons
Tank Set-Up: Freshwater
Compatibility: Peaceful fish

The kuhli loach (Pangio kuhlii) belongs to the Cobitidae family. It is also known as the Coolie Loach, the Leopard Loach, and the Cinnamon Loach.

This Loach has an eel body shape and they are scavengers making them great aquarium cleaners. The advantage of this Loach over others is its size. It rarely grows over 3-5 inches in length, and they don’t create much waste.

Despite their small size, they are better suited for experienced aquarists because they are prone to diseases. They have a head with no scales, and they are very sensitive to medications. Some experience in treating scale-less fish is advised if you want to keep these night owls.

They are moderately priced at about $3.00 per fish.

Watch out when you are buying them to always ask also for their scientific names, so you are sure you are buying the species that you want. They are often confused with Pangio cuneovirgata, Pangio myersi and Pangio semicincta.

Check any potential fish carefully for signs of injury or disease before you buy a Kuhli Loach. They can be quite susceptible to disease, so you want to make sure that you are starting with healthy individuals.

You do not want to introduce diseases to any fish that are already established in your aquarium either, though a quarantine tank can be used to prevent this.

Look out for strange markings, faded colors, and unusual behaviors as they move around in the pet store. Shop elsewhere if you spot anything out of the ordinary.

If properly cared for, Kuhli Loaches can live for at least 10 years.

Typical Behavior

The Kuhli Loach is a peaceful fish. Although they are not a schooling fish, they are more comfortable with some companions. They can be very shy and you will hardly see them if left alone in your aquarium.

They are very quiet during the day, then come night-time they are active. They are known as demersal fish.

This means they spend their time near the river bed, scavenging food which sinks to the bottom.

In your aquarium, they will have similar behaviors. They will spend most of their time at the bottom of the tank scavenging in the substrate for food.

They are very curious fish and will appreciate caves and crevices to hide in.

This fish likes burrowing into the sand and often they will swim to their death if you leave filter inlets unprotected (more on this later).


Kuhli Loach Appearance

The Kuhli Loach is a small eel-looking fish. It can reach a maximum of 5 inches in the wild and will be a bit smaller in your aquarium (usually around 3 inches). It has 4 pairs of barbels around the mouth and small fins.

Unlike many other fish, their dorsal fin starts well beyond the middle of their body and their eyes are covered by transparent skin. Usually they have 10 to 15 dark vertical bars with a pinkish to yellow color in the middle. The underside is usually lighter.

A peculiar characteristic is that they have very faint body scales and no head scales; this feature makes them very susceptible to diseases.

Males and females look very similar when not actively breeding. The only difference is that males have a more muscular dorsal cross-section and larger pectoral fins. Females become larger when breeding and their ovaries can be seen through their skin before spawning.

Often Kuhli Loaches are confused with other Loaches.

In the same Loaches group (Pangio) you can find the Pangio oblonga, Pangio myersi, Pangio cuneovirgata, Pangio semicincta, Pangio shelfordii and the Pangio robiginosa.

Black Kuhli Loach Appearance

Very similar in shape and sizes to the Kuhli Loach, black varieties are completely black or dark brown. They are one of the most sought after varieties.

Also known as the Chocolate Kuhli Loach, they can reach the maximum size of 3.2 inches.

How Big Are Kuhli Loaches?

Kuhli Loaches grow to a maximum of 5 inches, but it’s more likely they will grow to between 3-4 inches in your aquarium.
Kuhli Loach Habitat

The Kuhli Loach is found in South-East Asia, in Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo. However, the full extent of its distribution still remains unclear.
They inhabit the shallow slow-moving waters of forest streams; a similar environment to old peat swamps with black waters. These habitats are often shaded from direct sunlight by the streams dense vegetation and the tree canopy above the water.

Waters can be very acidic, with a pH as low as 3.0-4.0, with a very low mineral content due to the organic materials such as plants which are decaying.

The river bed’s substrate can vary in different locations from peat to mud or sand.

Tank Setup

It’s very important to keep the water clean and well-oxygenated.

Kuhli Loaches require a soft substrate such as sand and fine gravel mix. The water should be soft, 0-5 dGH, slightly acidic, pH 5.5-6.5, with moderate lighting. They are tropical fish and the temperature should be kept between 73-86°F.

We suggest an under gravel filter to improve oxygenation and reduce waste. They prefer good water movement with a turnover of at least 10 times per hour; you will need a good quality filter for this.

Any filter you use will need a cover over the outlet and inline pipe so your Loach doesn’t swim inside and get trapped.

In the wild they are used to lots of vegetation so include plenty of plants such as Cryptocoryne and Java Fern. In the wild, Loaches like spending time in leaf litters so you can spread peat moss inside the aquarium to recreate this.

Some large rocks and a couple of pieces of driftwood can also be used as tank decoration; they will also appreciate twisted roots as a place to hide.

Make sure to have a firm cover on your tank as these fish can jump out of the tank.

Kuhli Loach Tank Size

They require an aquarium of at least 20 gallons.

Allow 3-5 gallons of water for each Loach you add to your tank.

Tank Mates


Kuhli Loaches are peaceful fish. They are best kept with other small non-aggressive fish such as Corydoras, danios, rasboras and tetras.

They will spend most of their time swimming at the bottom of the tank, scavenging and eating the leftover food that has sunk onto the sand. Therefore ideal tank mates are those fish which occupy the upper regions of the tank.

White Cloud Mountain minnows, oto catfish, and shrimps like the red cherry shrimp are also good tank mates.

Peaceful pelagic fish such as gouramis are also ideal tank companions. Pelagic fish spend most of their time swimming near the middle or the surface of the water tank.

Avoid keeping your Loaches with other large territorial fish such as cichlids and arowanas. Other big no-no’s are nipping fish and bullies such as tiger barbs, Chinese algae eaters, and angelfish.

Blue gouramis, bettas, and red-tailed sharks are also not great companions. They are very territorial and this can end up causing your Kuhli stress.

Finally, don’t keep them with snails. Your Loaches will try to eat them.

They will flip a snail over and eat them from the shell, like dinner in a bowl. It is possible that they could do this to shrimps as well, but this is rare since shrimps are much more capable at escaping.

Keeping Kuhli Loaches Together

These fish are at their best when kept together in a group of 6. If kept alone, they will be very shy and will hide most of the time.


Kuhli Loach are omnivorous fish, eating larvae, small crustaceans and plant material found on the river bed.

They usually sieve through mouthfuls of substrate in search of food. They don’t actively hunt for food but instead are known as scavengers. They will wait for the food to sink from the water above and then search for it to eat.

It will eat most of the things you feed to them, frozen or live food.

Despite not being fussy, they do prefer a meat-based diet. To give them a balanced diet you can also feed them vegetables and fish flakes or pellets.

Flakes and pellets are ideal as they will easily sink down to the substrate and they will be easily eaten by your eels – these foods should form the base of your Loaches diet.

In your aquarium you can feed your Loaches Daphnia, Artemia, Bloodworms, Microworms and Grindal Worm. There are also many homemade recipes that you can try to give them a balanced diet.

You should feed them several times per day, only as much as they can eat in 2-3 minutes.


Kuhli Loach Care

Unfortunately, these fish are more susceptible to disease; this is due to them having no head scales and very faint body scales.

You should be careful when introducing these fish into an established community.

They are very sensitive to the different medications which are used to treat diseases, and some disease require water temperature changes along with medication which can cause further stress to these fish and make them more prone to diseases.

The most common disease is known as Ich or “white spot disease”. Most aquarium fishes are susceptible to this disease, but Loaches are often the first to be attacked.

Another common problem is parasites which can cause what is known as skinny disease. If your fish is eating healthy and still seems to lose weight, it is likely being affected by a parasite. This can be treated carefully with different medications.

When keeping such a sensitive type of fish, prevention is the key for a successful aquarium. Try to maintain good water quality with a proper environment suitable to their needs and a well-balanced diet.


It can be very challenging to breed Kuhli Loaches, but it can be done if you set up a breeding tank with the following parameters.

Keep low water levels with very dim light. Females will use floating plants to lay their eggs, and dense vegetation will also help to promote spawning. The water hardness should be lowered with a pH of 6.5.

The more comfortable the Loach is in your aquarium the more likely they will spawn. Kuhli Loaches are communal spawners and therefore if kept within a community of their own species the chances of spawning occurring will be increased.

Also plenty of food is always appreciated to encourage spawning; live foods are often the best for this.

You will have to be patient with your fish, as Kuhli Loaches only reach sexual maturity at 2 years old.

Females will grow very large when laying their eggs. Occasionally you can see the eggs through their skin. When the females are ready to spawn, they will release bright green colored eggs that will attach to the underside of your floating plants.

Adult fish will likely eat the fry and the eggs so make sure you remove the adults when the eggs have been laid.

Eggs hatch approximately 24 hours later. You can feed the fry with Infusoria or brine shrimp. Also, commercially prepared fry food is suitable as a first food.

Perform small partial water changes every day to ensure that the fry have a clean environment, as they can be quite delicate whilst newly hatched.

The fry will grow fairly quickly, reaching an inch long after about six weeks. If you have too many fry, you may have to move some into a new tank before they get any bigger.

They can be sold once they reach 2 inches long.

As we mentioned early, it is extremely difficult to breed these fish so don’t be disheartened if they don’t breed.

Are Kuhli Loaches Suitable For Your Aquarium?

Kuhli Loaches are small freshwater fish. They are nocturnal animals that will shy away if not kept within a small group of the same species.

They are lively during the night, so keep a tight cover on your tank or they might attempt to escape!

This fish requires a bit of attention as they are very prone to diseases if not kept in the proper environment with good oxygenation and frequent water changes.

Breeding these fish is not very easy but for this reason, can be very rewarding if you’re successful.

Kuhli Loach FAQs

About Robert 394 Articles
Robert Woods is the creator of FishKeeping World, a third-generation fish keeper, and a graduate in animal welfare and behavior. He is also a proud member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, the Marine Aquarium Societies of North America, and the Nature Conservancy.


  1. Evan says:

    Have tried keeping these fish a few times. They do not do well without many friends in the tank.

    • Sarah says:

      How often do Kuhlis get eggs?
      I just bought seven and two of those are carrying eggs. They don’t seem like they’re adults. One of them is probably about 6cm

  2. Megan says:

    I loved reading this article, very informative… I can only hope our kuhli loaches live to be 10! We have 3 in our 55 Gallon (though after reading this article I’m going to add 3 more) ours are so fun. They definitely aren’t just night scavengers. Ours all three come out when I get ready to feed them and are active in our tank all the time. We have an eclectic mix and they get along with everyone. We recently added the khuli loaches (6mth ago) and I am so glad we did

  3. UncleJack says:

    I had 3 of these in a community tank years ago. One of them dissappeared for A YEAR. I never saw it through numerous substrate vacuuming and water changes. Then one day, there were once again 3 of them foraging around the bottom eating food flakes.

    • Korin says:

      That is so funny, I have a simular story I had originally gotten 2 from my lfs and they kept going inside of a log I had in there and then they disappeared so took out the log shook it out…could not find them so I sadly assumed they died and had been eaten or got trapped in the log. Few weeks pass I decided to redecorate plants had taken over and to my surprise I had 3 kuhli’s 2 about 3in and another one about 1.5in! 6yrs later still have the 3! I would love if they live 10yrs! Great article, love these fish!

      • Jeff says:

        I just got 10 for a 150 gallon tank, sounds about right.

      • Paula says:

        I have 3 Kuhli loaches and 1 is 15yrs old. He’s chocolate colored. We call him prehistoric because he’s been around for so long. One of the others has gotten very rounded and large so she could be pregnant.

  4. Arlene Matteson says:

    I have a disease in my tank which seems to be bothering my khuli’s but not my other fish. This is my Third Khuli to get it and it had displayed the same on all three. It looks like a white pencil eraser size lump in the mid back. I think it looks more bacterial then parasitic. However I know khuli’s are prime to parasites so I don’t want to rule that out. Ich is usually small dots scattered, whereas this is one large sore. I tried to treat with a broad spectrum agent but that made my well khuli’s not look so good, so I stopped, changed and filtered the water. I would like to maybe try a more specific agent to target what is actually bothering them but not sure what it is. Anyone else have a similar issue?
    My aquarium is 30 years old. I have successfully had khuli’s before usually 4-5 years.

  5. Matt Dahlgren says:

    We put 3 Kuhli loaches in our aquarium about a year ago. Last night while I was feeding them, babies suddenly appeared from under rocks and gravel. I have no idea how many there are, but I saw at least 4 little 3/4” long loaches. It was a big surprise because it’s the first time we’ve had any fry ever.

  6. OM Albertson says:

    Could I keep these fish with pictus catfish? Or would it be to stressful on the fish?

  7. Shawn says:

    I have a large tank (125 g.) and I discovered the most exciting thing last night. I have 3 cinnamon loaches. I generally only see two of them so I was afraid the third had died (my parrot fish will eat a dead fish so I don’t always find a body). Last night I cleaned my aquarium really well and moved things around and I found a small fourth cinnamon loach which means one of them laid eggs and one survived! It was a very exciting discovery.

  8. Therese Lehoux says:

    We have two kuhli loaches in a 77 gallon aquarium that are over 25 years old. They have been in a tank with angelfish and African cichlids and we have never had any problems with keeping them together. We see them a lot when the tank is cleaned and
    rearranged; they are so curious .

  9. lorene shoell says:

    I am a beginner and I got I think a kuhli loach. well at least that’s what I ask for at the pet store. I just recently added more plants and I got it log for it to hide in. I’ve had it for like 2 days and it was hurting but today for a while now it’s been swimming frantically up and down the glass is that normal it only have one cuz I have a 10 gallon tank should I have more than that. I’m hoping to soon get a hundred gallon tank from a friend but all I could afford was a 10. so far I have a female glow betta 5 neon tetras, an algae cleaning fish I can’t remember what kind I have to snails and then I ended up somehow I’m getting a different brand of snail in the water. I figured that’s funny for the tank my betta is not aggressive. matter fact she loves playing with the neon tetras and I’m suing getting at 5 ghost shrimp is it just my lotus happy or is there something that I’m doing wrong and that is stressed about?

  10. Bradley Jones says:

    Such an awesome fish … once my molly thought it was a worm and tried too eat it!

  11. Marie Nixon says:

    Great article. I got my 3 today – think I’ll get a few more. Interesting that you said they can live with cherry shrimp… Won’t they eat the shrimp?

  12. Merete says:

    Very good information! I Think one of my loaches might be “pregnant” but they are so fast im not sure. They have all the things mentioned above exept floating plants, so im going to the lfs When i Can. I really hope she is “pregnant” and i Will Get kuhli babies <3

  13. Sophia B says:

    I am looking to add some to my tetra tank. I have the stratum planting substrate. I know it will not harm them, but can the loaches still dig?

  14. Sophia B says:

    I am looking to add some to my tetra tank. I have the stratum planting substrate. I know it will not harm them, but can the loaches still dig??

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