African Dwarf Frog Care, Food, Tank & Guide

African Dwarf Frogs are small peaceful frogs perfect for a community aquarium.

As nocturnal animals, you will only find them during the moonlit hours where you can witness some very peculiar behaviors from them.

In this article, you will learn everything you need to know to successfully care for African Dwarf Frogs.

African Dwarf Frog Facts & Overview

CategoryRating
Care Level:Intermediate
Temperament: Peaceful
Color Form:Olive-green to brown/green
Lifespan: 5 years
Size: 3 inches
Diet:Omnivore
Family:Pipidae
Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons
Tank Set-Up:Fully aquatic
Compatibility: Tropical freshwater communities

African Dwarf Frogs belong to the family Pipidae, in the genus Hymenochirus. In total there are 4 species which have the common name African Dwarf Frog: Hymenochirus boettgeri, Hymenochirus boulengeri, Hymenochirus curtipes and Hymenochirus feae.

All four frogs look very similar and don’t have many distinguishing features; the main difference between these frogs is their native locations.

  • Hymenochirus boettgeri is found in the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and Cameroon.
  • Hymenochirus boulengeri is endemic to the North east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  • Hymenochirus curtipes is found in the Republic of the Congo.
  • Finally Hymenochirus feae is only endemic to Gabon.

They are all small, fully aquatic amphibians that reach a maximum size of 3 inches and only weigh a few ounces each.

It is very common for them to be mistaken for the African Clawed Frog. They look very similar, but the Clawed Frog is bigger and more aggressive.

Keep this in mind when purchasing your first frog, and always do your own research to know what you’re buying rather than relying on labels which could be wrong.

Typical Behavior

African Dwarf Frogs are very entertaining additions to your tank. They are nocturnal animals so will be most active when the sun goes down. As a fully aquatic frog, they will spend most of their time in the water swimming, occasionally rising to the surface to breathe.

These frogs cannot spend a lot of time out of the water because they will dehydrate and die after only 15-20 minutes.

They don’t have gills like fish, instead they have fully developed lungs. They will swim very fast to the surface for air, and then dart straight back down a second later.

Another funny and peculiar behavior which is very common with these frogs is known as the ‘zen position’. You might witness your frogs floating at the surface of the water without moving, with their arms and legs stretched out. This is completely normal, even though they sometimes look dead!

You might also hear them singing. An adult male attracts a female by making a quiet buzzing sound.

Questions:

What Is Their Lifespan?

African Dwarf Frogs have quite a short life span, living up to 5 years.

How Much Do They Cost?

Now you can easily find them online and in pet shops. You can find them in different sizes and colors from about $1.50-$5.00.

Facts:

  • They are fully aquatic amphibians spending most of their time underwater. They have to come to the surface to breath.
  • Frogs are social animals and enjoy each other’s company.
  • They can carry quite nasty diseases so always make sure to wash your hands and to avoid contamination.
  • You don’t need to feed your frogs every day.
  • They are not great swimmers, hence the need to keep the water flow low.
  • You might witness funny behaviors such as the ‘zen position’.

Appearance

African Dwarf Frog

African Dwarf Frogs are olive, to brownish green frogs. Even though they all tend to vary in color, they all have distinctive black spots on their bodies.

These frogs are small amphibians, growing no more than 3 inches and weighing only few ounces each.

Frogs in the Pipidae family have common characteristics, such as no tongues and no teeth. This means that they have webbed feet, which are used to help them move around, but also to literally feed themselves.

They also have a buccal cavity which can draw in water, which lets them eat by sucking water into their mouth.

These frogs lack ears, so how are they aware of their surroundings? They have special sensory lateral lines along their body which sense movement and vibrations.

Males and females show slight differences. Females are generally a bit bigger with a more distinct genital region, known as the ovipositor. Males on the other hand, have a small visible gland behind each front leg.

The exact function of this gland is still not well understood, however the common belief is that it has something to do with mating.

Habitat and Tank Requirements

African Dwarf Frog in Tank

The name is a bit of a give-away, so it’s no surprise to learn that African Dwarf Frogs come from Africa! They are found in tropical forests, within the freshwaters of Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, all the way to the Congo River Basin.

Here the environment is rather humid and warm. Light is really important; they are nocturnal animals and are used to a 10-12 hour cycle of light and darkness.

These frogs need water or a very humid environment to survive.

As with all the fish, it is best to set up the tank, and create the right environment before purchasing the frog.

African Dwarf Frog Tank and Set-Up

Make sure the environment above the water is high in humidity – this way if the frog leaps out of the water they won’t get dehydrated.

As already mentioned, light is quite important. These frogs are used to regular periods of light and dark, so set up your lights on a timer to ensure the lights are on a 10-12 hour cycle.

They don’t need fancy lighting like other reptiles or amphibians; you can just purchase a normal LED aquarium light.

As their skin is very sensitive to chemicals you’ll need to purchase a good filter and a water test kit to make sure to always have the best water quality. Always perform checks on the water when you do your 20% weekly water change. These are the idea water parameters for your tank:

  • Temperature: 72-78°F
  • pH: 6.5-7.8
  • gH: 5-20
  • kH: 4-15

For substrate you can use either sand or gravel. If you are purchasing gravel, make sure that the grains are large enough for the frog to not swallow them.

You shouldn’t have a strong water movement. These frogs don’t like strong water flows as occasionally they like to be motionless in the water.

Even though frogs breathe normal air, you might want to consider buying an air pump or air stone to keep the water quality optimal, and bad anaerobic bacteria away from your tank.

However, they are quite sensitive to noise and vibrations so if you include a pump, you can isolate it from the tank glass to avoid this problem. For these reasons you might also want to consider adding a layer of insulation, such as Styrofoam or a piece of carpet, between the tank and the stand.

These Frogs also appreciate live plant. You can either put floating plants in, such as Hornwort or other rooted plants such as Java Fern.

If you choose rooted plants, make sure you cover the roots of the plants as your frog might dig them out.

Finally, you will need to add plenty of hiding spaces around the tank, these animals are naturally preyed upon so they will feel safer with places to hide away. You can create hiding spaces using plants, rocks and pieces of driftwood.

What Size Aquarium Do They Need?

Most people start with a 10 gallon tank, which is big enough to host a small community of 4-5 frogs. You can also use a 20-gallon tank but, make sure the water is not too deep so your frogs can easily swim up for air.

You should allow two gallons of water per frog.

Tank Mates

African Dwarf Frog and Neon Tetra

They are perfect for communal tropical freshwater tanks. Make sure you keep your frogs and fish well fed and the water conditions ideal, and you shouldn’t have any problems.

These frogs are peaceful creatures and should be placed in similar communities.

Ideal tank mates include small peaceful fish such as livebearers (guppies, mollies, and platies), as well as Corydoras, Danios, schooling tetras such as neon tetra, the Serpae Tetra, and the rummy nose tetra.

Also, if you are looking for other companions, the Cherry, Ghost, and the Bamboo shrimp, along with species of snails, can be a good addition too.

It is possible that snails and shrimps may be viewed as food though, so add them with caution.

As long as the fish are peaceful, and not small enough to fit in the frog’s mouth, they should make good tank companions.

Large aggressive fish such as cichlids are to be avoided. They will stress the frogs out and likely prey on them.

Are They Compatible With Bettas?

The answer is yes, you can keep these two together with caution. It really comes down to the individual temperament of your betta. Some Bettas are really aggressive whereas others will not bother a frog.

If the Betta is aggressive, it could bully your frog and eventually kill it, so if you decide to add both to a tank, watch them carefully to make sure they are compatible.

Keeping Them Together

These frogs are best kept in a small community. They are quite social and best kept in small groups of at least 2 or 3 per tank.

Diet

Even though African Dwarf Frogs are considered omnivores, they prefer a meaty diet. Try to keep a varied diet to make sure they receive all the nutrients needed for a healthy frog.

There are plenty of pre-prepared foods available which should form the basis of their diet. These are usually pellet-based.

You can also give your frog a variety of treats a few times a week, including fish fry, mosquito larvae, bloodworms, brine shrimps, krill, and earthworms. As an extra tasty treat, feed them beef heart but only give this once a month as it is very fatty.

It’s down to your personal preference as to whether you feed them live or frozen food, most of the above foods can be found either frozen or live.

While they’re young, feed your frogs once a day but as they mature, you can fed them less.

As an adult, your frogs need to be fed once every two days. You should feed them small size bites and only feed them what they can easily eat in 15 minutes.

Do not overfeed them as this can lead to obesity and poor water quality which leads to stressed fish. Try to not leave uneaten food in the tank, and remove whatever they haven’t eaten after 20 minutes.

If your frog is not eating well and being particularly fussy, you might need to use tweezers to feed them directly. Try to squeeze the food almost on their faces so they can see it and eat it.
Young Male African Dwarf Frog

Care

These frogs are quite sensitive and delicate animals.

As an amphibian, your frogs might also be a danger to you. They are not venomous, but these amphibians can carry a lot of bacteria, usually on their on their skin or in their feces.

Salmonella is the most common bacteria found which is quite problematic for humans. Don’t touch your frog, use an aquarium net instead. If you need to handle them, use gloves and always wash your hands before and after handling.

As they are rather sensitive, avoiding placing anything sharp such as gravel or decorations in the tank. Also try to protect in and outlets so the frog cannot get stuck.

One of the most common diseases is known as dropsy. This condition is usually deadly and is the results of a mix of different conditions. Your frog will start to bloat showing sign of distress. Unfortunately, this can be caused by a lot of different things, from parasites to bacterial infections.

Depending on the cause, sometimes it’s treatable and sometimes it’s contagious. If you suspect dropsy check with a vet that specializes in amphibians.

Other problems that you might encounter are fungal or bacterial infections. Fungal infections appear as fuzzy patches on the frogs’ skin.

A particular nasty fungus is known as Chytridiomycosis. This is contagious and the infected frog should be isolated.

Bacterial infections can also be problematic. Red eyes or skin, loss of appetite, lethargy are all signs of distress. Usually antibiotics can work their magic. Always double check if your antibiotics are amphibians safe.

If you keep optimal water quality with a good feeding schedule and the right environment, your frogs will not have many problems.

Breeding

With a little know-how, African Dwarf Frog breeding is not too difficult. If you create a healthy environment and provide a nutritious diet, they should breed without intervention.

Make sure that you have a male and a female. Females are slightly bigger and have a pronounced genital region (ovipositer) whereas males have a small gland behind each front leg.

A rich diet of live/frozen bloodworms, blackworms, and daphnia should help to initiate spawning. If they don’t begin breeding, gradually raise the water temperature to 82°F to act as another trigger.

Once they start to breed, they will show some interesting courtship behaviors.

The male will make sounds to attract the female. The pair will then begin an embrace known as the amplexus. They will swim in circles and regularly release 1000 sticky eggs that will attach to plants.

At the point, remove the parents.

The eggs will hatch are 1-2 days. The tadpoles will stay attached to surfaces for a further week, after which you can feed them some small chopped-up foods.

The tadpoles will gradually develop back legs, then front legs. The tail will begin to shrink, and after several weeks, they will have fully metamorphized into adult frogs.

Is The African Dwarf Frog Suitable For Your Aquarium?

These frogs are peaceful small amphibians. They are very common due to them being so easy to keep.

Try to provide the best environment possible (with the right tank, water parameters, substrate) and you will succeed at keeping your frogs nice and healthy.

Feeding is not a big challenge; you don’t even have to do it every day, and they eat pretty much the same food your fish eat.

So is this frog the next perfect addition to you tank?

African Dwarf Frog FAQs

About Robert 394 Articles
Robert Woods is the creator of FishKeeping World, a third-generation fish keeper, and a graduate in animal welfare and behavior. He is also a proud member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, the Marine Aquarium Societies of North America, and the Nature Conservancy.

47 Comments

  1. Morgan Wilcox says:

    I have had an African Dwarf frog for 8 and a half years now. My mother got it for me for Christmas in 2011 and i have been feeding it frog pellet food from petco 2-3 times per week. I clean the small tank with water and then fill it up with water from the refrigerator. I made sure to microwave the water and have it be room temperature before I put him/her back in. I do this whenever the water gets to be only an inch and a half high in the tank. There is no cover on the top of the tank, and he/she has never attempted to get out. I place two rocks leaning against each other so he/she can go underneath, that is it’s favorite spot to be. I know they do not typically live this long, so I just wanted to share how I care for it.

    • Dakota says:

      They’re life span ranges to 10-15years, they should have at least 10 inches of water to swim around, and you should never fully swap water or use drinking bottled water, or microwave it for that matter, let it adjust itself to room temperature then add it to the tank and never do more than a 50% swap unless it’s that deplorable of conditions, use gravel cleaners whenever possible to not stress the frogs and definitely don’t swap their water that often. Feed on a consistent every other day if they’re an adult, they’re memory works and they’ll expect food, the rocks sounds like a disaster waiting to happen, African frogs are sooo clumsy and can cut themself on gravel/displays and knock over things that aren’t flat on the ground, give the guy some room to swim around in, they are escape artist but obviously if u only give them an inch of water when the tank could hold 18” they aren’t wall climbers, a lid will keep very harmful bacteria and no good spiders out

  2. Candice says:

    I’m getting a larger tank about 50 gallons will my frog be okay in it?

    • Fishkeeping World says:

      Hi Candice, yes a 50 gallon tank is great as long as you follow the habitat requirements in this article. Thanks, Robert

    • @animalbrit44 says:

      yes, your frog should be just fine in a bigger tank. As long as you make sure they can get up to the surface with out getting caught up in any decorations. I have two in my 50 gallon tank and they love it.

    • katherine says:

      if you have one frog I really suggest getting one or two more, if you plan on getting other fish or have other fish you should pick peaceful fish such as guppies, platies, and mollies. if you have a chichild DON’T put the frog in there, the chichild WILL eat them and,or kill them.

    • Grayson says:

      it depends on how deep the tank is… typically a 50 gallon is too deep :/

  3. Izzy says:

    Can 3 frogs survive in a 5 gallon tank?

    • Wendy B says:

      Sure they will. I had 3 in a 5 gallon hex tank for almost 8 years before they started to die. I now have bought 3 for my son and set them up in a 5 gallon tank with an overwater filtration but no power head or strong bubbler as they don’t like strong current. They can drift in it while feeding on dehydrated blood worms. The over water filter actually makes the dried worms look alive dancing almost! I’ve found that these frogs WILL forage and look for food at the top of the water as well as at the bottom of the tank. I feed the frog pellets first and let them search around for it and then they get a treat by getting a few dried blood worms on top that float and dance until gulp! We are thinking of growing sea monkeys (brine shrimp) to keep next to the frog tank for live food.

    • April says:

      I don’t believe 3 ADFs in a 5g will be overstocked in terms of parameters as long as the tank is planted and you have good filtration (like an oversized sponge filter). I do believe that tank size would be too small in terms of territory. ADFs can get very aggressive during feeding time towards one another, and being in such a small tank might make them aggressive all the time. I would recommend a 10g or larger.

    • Grayson says:

      you should probably only put 2

    • Dakota says:

      They should be alright, may be a little small 7-8 would be ideal but sense they are all the same breed you should have no issues, just refrain from adding more or any fish

    • Linda Garone says:

      Is it necessary to get dwarf frogs in pairs, or is it ok a quantity of three, small aquarium with plenty of room to hide. Live plants to sit on too. How deep is to deep for dwarf frogs to swim to the top of the aquarium?

  4. katherine says:

    i have a 2.5 gallon tank with two African dwarf frogs in it, is the tank big enough fro them? also, the larger frog is very active, where as, the smaller frog swims around occasionally

    • Grayson says:

      that is probably due to the tank being too small. frogs aren’t like fish in the way that they need more space… around 3 – 5 gallons per frog. I would recommend upgrading to a 10 gal

    • Dakota says:

      You should allow 1 gallon per frog minimum, but with other aquatic life the 1 inch to 1 gallon rule works like a charm, to give them their own space I’d recommend a 5 gallon.

  5. katherinetheworrier says:

    my African dwarf frog keeps climbing out of the water and i’m worried she will dehydrate and die. is this normal? shes been doing it for the past two days I’ve had her.

    • April says:

      ADFs that are spending the vast majority of their time at the surface are often times sick. While it is normal for them to nap at the surface, spending all day and/or trying to climb out is usually a bad sign. If the frog is actually trying to get out of the water completely, it may have a fungal infection or you may have high amounts of ammonia in the water. It may be beneficial to look into the signs and symptoms of Chytridiomycosis, a fungus that affects many species of frogs. And make sure you are regularly testing your water for ammonia, nitrites, and nitrates.

    • Lu says:

      Check your parameters- maybe it has high ammonia levels?

    • Ken Cossitt says:

      I hope your frog is still with you. It isn’t normal for them to climb out of the water as they are fully aquatic. If it is climbing right out of the water there is something wrong with your water conditions and your frog is trying to escape them.

      Test your water and do regular water changes until you get your system settled.

    • Dakota says:

      It is very normal, they love to escape, but DONT let them, they can dehydrate in 10minutes and only survive a maximum of 20-30 so time is of the essence and yes they will forget.

  6. Katherine says:

    HELP!!! I woke up two days ago and my adf was found upside down on the bottom of the tank, and today I just got back after a day of being away and my other one was also found upside down. I thought they were dead but when I went to get them out to put them in a baggie, one moved a little, after that she wasn’t responding to me poking her With tongs. And the one I found recently sometimes responds to my touch, they haven’t been eating at all that I see for the past week and I thought they might be eating when I wasn’t looking. My water conditions are perfect for the frogs temperature too. I NEED HELP

  7. Jithu says:

    I have a 50 gallon tank with 4 ADFs. It’s a community tank with fish and shrimp, and also live plants. How do I ensure that the frogs are fed properly without the other fish eating their food? I have purchased frozen bloodworm. Thanks

  8. Corina says:

    what happens if my frog eats some of the gravel in the tank? I think it may be too small and his little belly looks swollen 🙁

  9. Polly says:

    In setting up the tank what kind of water do I use? Do I need to treat the water in some way before I put the frogs in it?
    What about the water that I replace every week?

  10. Xavier says:

    Hello, I have a bunch of Rams-horn snails that I keep to clean my tank, I also sell their offspring on Kijji 🙂 Will African Dwarf Frogs eat the soft-shelled young, or even the slow-moving adults? Thanks.

  11. Dch48 says:

    My frog is definitely not nocturnal. He moves around all day and at night he hides and sleeps.

  12. DebG says:

    Our little froggie of this species is now 13 years old!

  13. Grayson says:

    How big is your tank? Does the frog feel threatened by their tank mates? If the answer if no to both, you might just have a troublemaker lol.

  14. Mike says:

    I have 10 frogs in a 5.5 gallon tank filled with banana plants. It’s very fun. I’m going to get a school of neon’s to go with them

  15. Hollie says:

    Hello, ive had my African dwarf frogs for around 10 months however one of them sadly died. Currently the other one is in a tank by itself and im concerned that if i add another frog that maybe smaller in size that they may attack eachother. The frog i have seems very docile but would like some advice on what to do. Can anybody help?

  16. Jamie Griffiths says:

    I have had an African water frog for 2 years. He is in a 5 gallon tank with a filter. There are 3 snails also in the tank. The water gets cloudy so quickly, needing to be changed at least once a week. Any suggestions?

  17. Anthony says:

    Do they breed a lot? I dont want to end up with a whole bunch

  18. Alison Thompson says:

    Safer to have a cover over your tank or she would die if out of the water and you did not realise. I have my three in a well established tank with tetra, a bristle nose plec and cloud minnows Fun to watch.All get along well.

  19. ashley says:

    My frog is doing the “zen” thing a lot. How much is too much, as in a sign of illness? It doesn’t seem to have any fuzziness on the skin, wounds, or red patches, and it isn’t bloated. It is still eating. I have a second frog in the same tank, as well as a beta fish, if my lethargic zen frog is sick, then is my other frog and beta fish in the same tank at risk?

  20. Michele Mantis says:

    I just recently purchased one to add to my tank that also has a betta, 2 snails, some shrimp and 2 guppies! The frog is so cool and fun to watch in the tank and best of all is I have the coolest betta because he seems super happy with his tank mates (I did not think the guppies would survive him) now I added each one slowly to see how my betta reacted and he is just a peaceful betta everyone seems quite happy. I also only keep live plants in my tank. Cool little frog! Very informative page thank yo

  21. Robin says:

    For those of you that may be interested in the life span of these little frogs.
    I was given 2 African Dwarf frogs in 2005. One passed away in August of 2020 and I do still have the other frog who has had dropsy for nearly 1 year. The tank is only 2 gallons, water temp is between 78 and 80 degrees, and is feed frog pellets about 5 times a week.

  22. Angie says:

    Could i put frogs in a 1.7 gallon tank ):?

  23. Robin Greene-Jacobs says:

    My dwarf frog used to go bananas at night swimming up and down and all around …. but today it only want to sit on the very top of a tank toy. It seems really lethargic. Should I be worried? He lives w an unusually calm beta and a snail in a three gallon tank.

  24. Phil Owen says:

    Hi. Thank you for your informative site. My Daughter and I have just set up an aquarium for our two baby African Dwarf frogs. The first few weeks have been fine so far, but this morning I discovered one of them had climbed into the filter unit, and had his foot stuck to one of the filters. Distressed, and trying to free himself. I could not free him naturally, and sadly had to use a plastic pick to free his leg. He is now missing a foot, and unable to swim properly. I have watched him closely since, and he has eaten the fresh worms I have placed in front of him. His leg is trailing behind him. All of this is very upsetting. What do you suggest we do, or will his leg heal or limb re-produce?

  25. Cora says:

    Hi! I absolutely adore fish and am SO EXCITED that I can keep frogs! I was wondering about water care. I am worried that I am missing something in all the research I’ve done. I know about temperature, water conditioning, and ph. I have been looking into nitrates and such, but can’t seem to figure out if it is important enough that I spend my limited amount of money on it. Is there anything else I should be worrying about? Specifically for frogs and/or neon Tetras?

  26. Rebecca says:

    I have a female African dwarf frog. I got her as a froglet – she still had a small tail and her front legs weren’t completely developed yet. I’ve had her for 13 years, and she’s still doing just fine! I ordered her from Grow-a-frog as a science lesson for my 2nd grade students. I never imagined she’d live so long!

  27. Clay says:

    How do you know if the tank is the right size. I want to make sure he has the right amount of space. Anyone know?

  28. Georgia says:

    Thanks for all the wonderful information! I’m better prepared now to be a good frog mommy!

  29. Lisa wheat says:

    Is Purigen safe to add to your filter with
    African Dwarf Frogs? Is it safe to use a little bleach to clean decor if you rinse it very well before putting in tank?

  30. Lisa Peachey says:

    I just rescued an African dwarf frog from a horrible situation. I know nothing about frogs. He’s covered in I think algae, his back leg is mangled and his front leg doesn’t seem to be working well. He seems to be in rough shape. Could someone please tell me what to give him that may help?

  31. Mr Brown says:

    I have a 125 gallon tank live plants ect will have around 12 endler guppies would these little cuties be ok in there.

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